2008 Sonnet-- Iteration 12

c(on moan feel
tent whips the crowdless noise
mannered expense
that other he(s (pretends to value)
lid our natur (e-commerce)
e)at zaps junk is subjective

sickle town lucky charms treasure rainbow
average arrives as the new original
elaborates appearance tissue
hands transparent overview opaque

cartoned tracking sing carbon dates mono
nonbreaking sector
sno-cones index our sexless effing
modific ambiance

as regression (open mouth) as
nervy s)lump our collective throat speaks

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    Datum: Mon, 14 Apr 2008 22:19:54 +0200 (CEST)
    Från: "troylloyd" Ämne: READER, AS FOUND :

    (Works Cited)

    Found Poetry
    by Manina Jones
    "How to Recognize a Poem When You See One"
    " " The found poem's historical analogues and the exercise undertaken by Fish both pose the problem of identifying a text objectively in terms of "its" inherent qualities, and point to contextual factors that contribute to the production of the text by its readers. When Colombo asks "What is found?" he is also posing the question of textual definition, and when he suggests "Perception?" he, like Fish, locates the answer in the unstable, self-conscious realm of interpretation ("Found Introduction" 434). The found poem necessarily implicates its readers in such questions, since its central gesture depends on a violation of a passage's apparent identity; in the reading of the found poem, the "same" text becomes somehow "other." Tom Hansen's definition stresses the reader's participation in this process: "Most found poems begin their lives as passages of expository prose. Their intended purpose is to feed easily digestible information to the reader. Nothing could be less poetic. But suddenly poetry is discovered embedded within the prose. The discoverer is someone alert to the possibilities of irony, absurdity, and other incongruities" (271)." "
    furthermores :
    "Despite the demonstrated complexities of Fish's student-generated "poem," we are unlikely to encounter it on a standard reading list for a course in literature. Found poetry is a genre that exists by definition in a contradictory position on the margins of the literary canon, since it places in jeopardy the very notions of literature, genre, work of art and artist that circumscribe the status of the canon. Ajit Singh Bhati, in fact, places the found poem under the heading "expanded poetry," a category that attempts to establish "non poetry, anti poetry and pop poetry as genuine integrants of poetry instead of letting them grow into a separate class" (85). In Canada, the equivocal position of both the finder and the found is perhaps best demonstrated by John Robert Colombo, whose "marginal" found writings, I would argue, are theoretically central to our changing conception of the literary text."
    inassuch :
    "Jean Mallinson refers to Colombo as "the poet as supreme opportunist, [who] joyfully exploits instead of lamenting his position as epigone or, to use Harold Bloom's term, 'belated poet' "(67). Indeed, Colombo actually draws attention to the social nature of "his" writings: he literally equivocates (equi-vocates) on the matter of the artist's signature by subtitling John Toronto "new poems by Dr. Strachan, found by John Robert Colombo." The book's main title, in fact, potentially refers to both John Strachan and John Colombo. Colombo also takes second billing to William Lyon Mackenzie on the title page of The Mackenzie Poems, explaining in the introduction that the volume "is the product of a creative collaboration spanning a hundred years" (7). Another introductory note tells us that the found text of The Great Cities of Antiquity is The Encyclopaedia Britannica, a work already considered by its authors to be "a vast engine of cooperative effort" (ii)."
    copy of copy of copy :
    "Other poems put the social issue in an even broader context. As we have noted, all language is always an already-given social fact, and is borrowed therefore from a complex socio-linguistic system, and not just individuals who can be duly attributed with a quote. Colombo's poems are frequently composed of excerpts from etymological dictionaries, dictionaries of quotation, dictionaries of proverbs, dictionaries of rhyming words. "Interrogation," for example, is composed of citations from Eric Partridge's A Dictionary of Clich�s (Variable Cloudiness 20). Such quotes make obvious what is the case for all uses of language: their "attribution" is intertextual; it necessarily goes far beyond the reference work in which they can be found."
    Demon strated (sic) :
    " "Reference work" is clearly a key term. It was, we might recall, the heading of the second, "non-literary," category of Colombo's found works. We routinely make the distinction between language that simply and unambiguously refers and language that is somehow differentiated by its "literary" status, but found poetry draws attention to the fallaciousness of that distinction. It may employ exactly the same materials as "non-literary" works as, for instance, does Colombo's poem "Love in Quotes," which is a pastiche of quotations from Colombo's Canadian Quotations (Variable Cloudiness 30). The difference, then, as Stanley Fish's example demon strated, is one of context, rather than content. In an article on "Non-genre literature," Jonathan Culler demonstrates the transformation of a piece of journalistic prose into a lyric poem through a shift in the reader's generic expectations. Similarly, Colombo's recontextualizing of da Vinci's inventories in Leonardo's Lists literally "re-invents" them in the sense of "invent" that means to find, or come upon. The "poetic" context puts into play interpretive possibilities that might otherwise have been ignored. " "
    or shortly :
    It goes without saying, then, that Colombo's work brackets the notion of Literature itself: Louis Dudek calls him "a non-poet who also writes non-books"
    on to the final finish :
    That shock of recognition is perhaps best explained by the dislocation Colombo describes in Abracadabra: "these days the aesthetic distance between an objet trouv� and an objet d'art is a short one indeed — a short circuit, some might say" (124). Redeeming prose involves a short circuiting of the conventional distinctions between the "aesthetic" and "non-aesthetic," "poetic" and "ordinary" that reveals all language as highly charged. "Redeeming" is perhaps a better word here than redeemed, since it implies an ongoing process of redefinition and reconsideration (re-deem-ing), as well as a reciprocal relationship between reader and text. As Jacques Ehrmann puts it, "Poetic language is not another language, it is the same language. Or, more precisely, it is language itself whose capacity (and function) to change and expand is suddenly exposed" (243).

    breathing as to reading :
    ( You have reached the most complete version of this article accessible without further authentication.) More complete versions are available. (Orless)
    If you do not have the information to complete either of these fields, please select 'Unknown'.
    Simon Eliot, Project Supervisor, sez:
    "This leads us to the first and greatest caveat in the history of reading: to own, buy, borrow or steal a book is no proof of wishing to read it, let alone proof of having read it."
    & "The history of reading is riddled with such enigmas and uncertainties. Given all these problems, why should we even attempt it when there are so many other aspects of book history where the evidence is more solid and the methodology clearer? The answer is, of course, that we’ve no alternative. To write the history of a product without also writing the history of its consumption is to have a cart without a horse. Books, as the judge agreed when the Net Book Agreement was successfully defended in the 1960s, are different. They are not simply an industrial product like a car or a refrigerator: the way books are read, who reads which books, determines the intellectual and cultural context in which the next generation of books will be read, indeed significantly influences the views and techniques of those who will write the next generation of books. The reading of books thus represents a very complex feedback loop which partly determines the way in which text is written, manufactured, sold, bought, borrowed - and read. However difficult it is to face, it will be the development in the history of reading which will make sense of all the other aspects of the history of the book - or not, if we don’t manage to crack it."
    or maybe not :
    This conference seeks to extend current debates on the history of reading (e.g. RED: 1450-1945) by inviting discussion on reception, readers and audiences – empirical and metaphorical – after empire. Reception is used in this context to refer to diasporic narratives of arrival, hospitality and integration, and to the critical activity of reading, interpreting and responding to such narratives.
    Suggested topics include:
    Reading and resistance; reception and translation; contrapuntal reading; empire, globalization, and interpretive communities; reading networks; the internet and new technologies; the postcolonial exotic; literacy and reading; reception as a situated activity; viewers, the gaze, ethnicity; consumption after colonialism; travelling libraries; diasporic readers/./audiences in literature/film; postcolonial history of the book; nationalism and hermeneutics.
    but possibly :
    [ Examples of Evidence of Reading Experiences: ]Diary entry
    ‘12 May 1869. Every evening this week I have read a chapter of Jane Eyre and find the heroine insipid in the extreme’.
    ‘17 August 1819: We read the newspaper this morning together. You will know by now of the horrible events yesterday here in Manchester. The city is now strangely calm after yesterday’s ferment.’
    ‘When I was a young girl, despite my aunt’s disapproval, I frequently stole into my uncle’s library and there read my way steadily through the works of the great poets. I there discovered Shakespeare for the first time.’
    Commonplace Book
    [Transcribed in Mary Mitford’s handwriting]: ‘She walks in beauty, like the night./ Of cloudless climes and starry skies;./ And all that 's best of dark and bright./ Meet in her aspect and her eyes.’
    Witness statement in trial proceedings
    ‘I am a pawnbroker and live in Houndsditch… I was reading the Daily Advertiser, and I saw an advertisement of a box, and some garden seeds, and a gown and thirteen yards of blue silk, lost from the ‘George’ on Snow-hill.’
    Interviews by social investigators
    ‘One of the appliances of the street sweet-stuff trade which I saw in the room of the seller before mentioned was –Acts of Parliament. A pile of these, a foot or more deep, lay on a shelf. They are used to wrap up the rock… The sweet-stuff maker bought his “paper” of the stationers or at the old bookshops. Sometimes, he said, he got works in this way in sheets which had never been cut, and which he retained to read at his short intervals of leisure, and then used to wrap his goods in. In this way he had read through two “Histories of England”’.
    ‘One of the books that Morgan [E.M.Forster] had recently re-read, in the June of 1907 just after going to Clun, was Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park’.
    Edited collection of letters
    ‘[comment by the editor] “In this letter, which I have truncated in the interests of brevity, Mitford mentions reading the following works: Cowper’s The Task, Jane Austen’s Persuasion, a novel by Thomas Love Peacock (unidentified) and a work by Thomas Gisborne, probably his well-known conduct book An Enquiry into the Duties of the Female Sex (1797)”’.
    looky : thus most likely :
    1.2 Marginalia
    If you are recording a marginal note/ marginal notes to a text, please enter the marginalia exactly as it is written (for example “Pish!!!!!!”, “Why?”, “Yes”, “finished 11 June 1845”, “THE AUTHOR IS A FOOL”) and also provide any further details (for example density of annotation, evidence of more than one hand, extensive underlinings, evidence of correction of the original author, etc) within square [] brackets. If you do not have enough space here, please use the Additional Comments section at the end of the form (Section 3.11).

    Please also specify the section of the book or poem to which the reader’s comments refer – for example ‘Paradise Lost, Book X, lines 12-15’; ‘Mary Wollstonecraft’s argument that all conduct literature written by men inculcates the same precepts’; ‘Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Vol 1, Chapter 5, From “If a woman conceals her affection” to “In nine cases out of ten a woman had better show more affection than she feels”’; ‘Written over the blank pages at the front/back of the volume’. If you do not have enough space here, please use the Additional Comments section at the end of the form (Section 3.11).

    For example: ‘[Marginal notes in Macaulay’s copy of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. By the lines “Dost thou not hear” to “Hath sealed thee for herself”] Macaulay writes: “An exquisitely beautiful scene. It always moved me more than any other in the play.” The annotations throughout are in pencil.’. Example 2: ‘[Marginal notes in Keats’s copy of John Milton’s ParadiseLost. In Paradise Lost, Book 1, by the lines 53-75] Keats writes “One of the most mysterious of semi-speculations is, one would suppose, that of one Mind’s imagining into another.” He underlines the words “round he throws his baleful eyes”, “sights of woe” and “Regions of sorrow, doleful shades.”’

    If you do NOT know the name of the reader please type ‘anon’.
    As however an optional thuswith:
    3.2 Socio-Economic Group
    Please choose a group. If the reading subject is particularly socially mobile (for example, born into a farm-labourer’s family then educated at Dame school, apprenticed to a print-maker, and becomes a journalist), please choose the group that most closely represents his/her status at the time of the reading experience you are recording.
    and of course an also :
    We are aware that ‘reading’ can mean many things, from reading a book aloud or silently, to the critical ‘reading’ of a text (including dramatic and cinematic texts) in an academic sense, or (metaphorically) ‘reading’ a face, a social situation, or the symbolic value of a text. But in the interests of clarity and manageability we have had to exclude certain of these ‘reading experiences’ as outside our remit. For our purposes, a ‘reading experience’ means a recorded engagement with a written or printed text - beyond the mere fact of possession. A database containing as much information as possible about what British people read, where and when they read it and what they thought of it will form an invaluable resource for researchers of book history, cultural studies, sociology and family history, to name but a few. To find out what we’re looking for, and what we don’t include, please follow this lunk.

    = WWWhat is a ‘reading experience’?
    askim with such sniffles :

    Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 23, No. 1, 37-67 (1999)
    Notes on the Enduring Popularity of a Signature Doors Song
    Prof. Arnold S. Wolfe Esq. sosayeth -
    "Recordings by the Doors remain remarkably popular, but the constituents of the lasting popularity of Doors texts for contemporary audiences remain unexamined. This study of the Doors' first single and first track on their first album reviews both scholarly and popular criticism dating from the song recording's 1967 release and argues that it remains popular due to (1) its lyrics, which thematically appeal to today's U.S. adult because of their mythic significance and to today's U.S. adolescent as they appealed to the U.S. adolescent of the 1960s; (2) its nonverbal musical variables, such as vocal performance and contrapuntal instrumental ostinatos; and (3) its links to Jim Morrison's image. This study grasps all of the above as communication phenomena that communication theories can help elucidate. Conversely, the study shows that communication inquiry into popular music can benefit from some musicological terms of analysis rarely encountered in communication literature."

    which begs, will the Real Rimbaud please stand up, please stand up :

    DEADEND = Perform your original search, text reader rimbaud, in Cambridge Quarterly
    and yet again DEADEND :
    Welcome to Blackwell Synergy - the source of highly cited peer-reviewed society journals from Blackwell Publishing - Thank You for saying Thank You, but Fuck You Too,

    - Orbis Litterarum -
    Volume 52 Issue 4 Page 221-239, August 1997
    To cite this article: Gerald Martin Macklin (1997) Representations of the Grotesque in the Early Verse of Arthur Rimbaud
    Orbis Litterarum 52 (4) , 221–239
    You are attempting to access the PDF of this article. To access this content you, or your library, will need to have an online subscription to the journal. Alternatively you can purchase immediate access to the article using a credit card.

    * If you already have an online subscription please login at the top of this page.
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    * To purchase immediate access to this article for 30 days through our secure web site using a credit card, please click the 'Full Text Article' or 'PDF' button below, and follow the instructions.
    but at least an abstract :

    "Continuing with a juxtaposition of Les Assis and Accroupissements, where authority figures are presented in a grotesque and darkly humorous manner, the article emphasises how the Rimbaldian vision of the grotesque is inextricably linked to a developing lexicon designed to capture horror, disgust and alienation. In its conclusion, the paper considers a range of illustrations of vulgar, rare and tecnical terms. The Rimbaldian grotesque is thus seen to challenge the reader in terms of both vision and language."

    so Bogie much easier :

    Dippy 'Dip': Well I dink an' I dink' an' I dink an' I can't rememba da numba. Den I rememba da building but I forget da floor. But den I check every room an' whoever she is she ain't dare.
    Hugh 'Baby Face': Nuttin' for nuttin' kid.
    Dippy 'Dip': What a fine ding to do to a kid, a fine ding, a fine ding.

    oddly enough : ( FINDAGRAVE )
    Gorcey, Leo b. June 3, 1917 d. June 2, 1969

    American motion picture actor of the 1930s through the 1960s. Widely known as the leader of the "Eastside Kids," the "Dead End Kids," and "The Bowery Boys." (Bio by: A.J. Marik)

    Cause of death: Liver failure
    Los Molinos Cemetery, Los Molinos, Tehama County, California, USA

    even across the pond :
    'On the rack of profit -
    Children of the Dead End, written by Patrick McGill
    Reviewed by Pat Smyth, Militant, Nov-Dec. 1982
    "Patrick McGill learnt to write on the road, between gruelling bouts of work on the railways or in the fields, or 'tramping' through the countryside in search of food. He left school at the age of ten and he'd not learnt much by then, as he says, his main claim to his classmates' respect being an assault on his teacher who, till then, had beaten him mercilessly.
    His life is the theme of an autobiographical novel, Children of the Dead End, written in 1914 at the age of 24. By then he had learnt more about life than any university-educated writer twice his age.
    Born of a poor peasant family near Glenties in Donegal, he was to become successively a farm labourer in Donegal and Scotland, a rail worker, a navvy, and then a successful writer, largely o the basis of this novel.
    The life he describes is brutal. Forced by family poverty to leave home for the hiring fair in Strabane at 12, his first master was to be a foretaste of things to come. For breakfast he got potatoes and buttermilk. "For dinner potatoes and buttermilk, for supper butter milk and potatoes." The pigs got the same. "To him I was not a human being: a boy with an appetite and soul. I was merely a ware purchased in the market place; something less valuable than a plough, and of no more account than a barrow".
    With only one exception, his masters were al the same. And Dermot (the name Patrick McGill assumes in the book) becomes harder and stronger, the best fighter, the best survivor. His first job on the railways arrives out of the blue when he steps into the job of a man just killed in front of him by a train - literally into dead mans shoes. Death is all too common and bloody in his life.

    At night they slept in cowsheds full of dung, or a pigsty overrun with rats. On payday they got drunk and fought, or lost their hard-earned pennies at cards.

    Yet, despite the poverty and brutalisation of these, the poorest of the poor, McGill's book is above all else a moving tribute to the generosity and tenacity of his class, and to the barbarism of the rich. It is an epitaph to Norah Ryan who gave her last penny to a beggar no worse off than herself and who later was driven to prostitution and an early grave in the back streets of Glasgow.
    Dermot learns to survive, to fight the system as an individual but he also comes to appreciate the need for fundamental change. "My heart went out to the men, women and children who toil in the dungeons and ditches of labour, grinding out their souls and bodies for meagre pittances�. Social suffering begins at any age and death is often its only remedy. That remedy of only for the individual; the general remedy is to be found in socialism. Industry, that new Inquisition, has thousands on the rack of profit; progress to millions means slavery and starvation; progress and profit mean sweated labour to railwaymen, and it meant death to many of them, as to Mick Deehan whose place I have filled.
    "When I heard the word spoken by socialists at the street corners a fir of enthusiasm seized men, and I knew that the world was moving and that men and women of the country were waking from the torpor of poverty full of faith for a new cause. I joined the socialist party."
    He has written a moving story of one man's graphic struggle to exist; a graphic portrayal of conditions of migratory workers at the time that is a bitter indictment of capitalism, but also a story of humour, friendship, love and loss of innocence. Its republication in paperback is very welcome and it should be on every worker's bookshelf.

    back to bugsbunny brooklyn :

    Synopsis - None. Be the first to contribute one by clicking here.

    (try again) :
    The East Side Kids were a group of actors who made a series of films and serials released by Monogram Pictures from 1940 through 1945. Many of them were originally part of The Dead End Kids and The Little Tough Guys', and several of them later became members of The Bowery Boys.
    ( WikiWakksummup) ) ) ) ) )
    ENQUOTED : When Samuel Goldwyn turned the play "Dead End" into a 1937 film, he recruited the original tough-talking kids from the play (Leo Gorcey, Huntz Hall, Bobby Jordan, Gabriel Dell, Billy Halop, and Bernard Punsly) to repeat their roles in the film. This led to the making of six other films starring The Dead End Kids. The most successful of these features were Angels with Dirty Faces (1938) with James Cagney and Humphrey Bogart, and They Made Me a Criminal (1939), starring John Garfield. Universal offered a competing series, under the Little Tough Guys brand name, featuring most of the same kids.
    bringing bugsabunny hole hopped :
    Unlike Boston and other urban dialects, New York City stands by itself and bears little resemblence to the other dialects in this region. It is also the most disliked and parodied of any American dialect (even among New Yorkers), possibly because many Americans tend dislike large cities. When an R comes after a vowel, it is often dropped. IR becomes OI, but OI becomes IR, and TH becomes D as in "Dey sell tirlets on doity-doid street" and fugedaboudit (forget about it). This pronounciation is particularly associated with Brooklyn but exists to some extent throughout the city. The thickness of a speaker's dialect is directly related to their social class, but these features have been fading within all classes over recent decades. Famous speakers are Bugs Bunny, and (if you're old enough to remember) the Bowery Boys.

    ala languagelog : She also attended the Atlanta Olympics, and had this to say about the people she met there:

    "When I ask for directions, I can't understand the slurred speech of southern Americans, who are so polite and eager to please," Vilsack said.
    And in large corpora in any language, the rate of typographical errors and variant spellings becomes a very significant contributor to the type-token curve.

    Denis MacShane, minister for Europe
    sez "
    "The core of Derrida's thinking is that every text contains multiple meanings. To read is neither to know nor to understand, but to begin a process of exploration that is essential to comprehend oneself and society. This is, however, the sort of pretentious bullshit language a minister for Europe can only use when speaking French."

    A reader wrote to call my attention to Barbara Partee's Language Log post about the wonderful Russian nonword "lytdybr" and to point out that I had used it in the title of one of the earliest LH posts without bothering to explain it, which was quite cheeky of me. But in my defense, I'd been immersing myself in Russian blogs and didn't really think of it as being completely obscure to whoever might be reading (not that there were more than three people reading at that point). So here, belatedly, is the explanation, in Barbara's words: "it's how the Russian word дневник, dnevnik 'diary', comes out if you're typing on a QWERTY keyboard with the keystrokes you would use on a Cyrillic keyboard." And as one of her students says, "It is often ... used to tag posts in blogs that are nothing more than boring retelling of author's life." (I'm amazed to see that my original post is the #3 hit for it on Google! My apologies to anyone who may have clicked on it over the years hoping for clarification.)

    Yes, even Romania as my ever-beloved Marianna petnomming me her filosof and damn
    why did i let go of that love so remembered as always beyond language brought instant atoppa
    stumble upon a Ro. BuggyBunny relation, ohmy Godramama how i lose love lost amongst the
    time undone and how you answered the phone witha " Salut ! " anda i began to do the same and
    how i stood firm in romantic pursuit against your protest that i was " you are my children" and
    twelve years the younger maybe i was but i know i'm still such a children lost in the block
    building of some world i know nothing about...how i wanted to love you, how i loved you,
    how i love you still...
    (memory) excuse sidetrack, onto Ro. :
    Da, si ca sa imi explic mai clar pozitia, iata unul dintre cele mai dragi mie pasaje filosofice:

    "Life in this world," he [Dydactylos, un personaj filosof, n.m.] said, "is, as it were, a sojourn in a cave. What can we know of reality? For all we see of the true nature of existence is, shall we say, no more than bewildering and amusing shadows cast upon the inner wall of the cave by the unseen blinding light of absolute truth, from which we may or may not deduce some glimmer of veracity, and we as troglodyte seekers of wisdom can only lift our voices to the unseen and say, humbly, `Go on, do Deformed Rabbit . . . it's my favorite.' "
    Nu e Platon, nu e Wittgenstein, nu e Nozick, e Terry Pratchett Razz

    Daca sunteti cuminti, mai postez mici bucati din colectia mea de "Bugs Bunny philosophy". Very Happy

    EDIT: dar o sa mut pe e-cafe, ca sa nu deturnam chiar de tot topicul
    Edit2: done
    and again the orig , wwwhirly birded back to nest :
    " There are really two kinds of reader-response criticism: one is a phenomenological approach to reading which characterizes much of Fish's earlier work, and the other is an epistemological theory characteristic of Fish's later work. The phenomenological method has much to commend itself to us as it focuses on what happens in the reader's mind as he or she reads. Fish applies this method in his early work "Surprised by Sin: The Reader in Paradise Lost." His thesis in this work is that Milton used a number of literary techniques intentionally to lead the reader into a false sense of security whereupon he would effect a turn from the reader's expectations in order to surprise the reader with his own prideful self-sufficiency. The supposed intent of Milton was to force the reader to see his own sinfulness in a new light and be forced back to God's grace. Fish's thesis is a rather ingenious approach to Paradise Lost and to Milton's (mis)leading of the reader."
    By Chris Lang
    e t t u ?
    "From this point in Fish's career his theories evolve into a form of criticism that rejects the author's intentionally and places meaning solely within the arena of those receiving the text. Thus his theory is sometimes called "reception aesthetics" or "affective stylistics." Fish claims that it is the interpretive community that creates its own reality. It is the community that invests a text, or for that matter life itself, with meaning. Those who claim that meaning is to be found in some eternal superstructure or substructure of reality he labels "foundationalists." Naturally, because foundationalists comprise their own interpretive communities and interpret through such a grid, they will be opposed to theories such as his own. His theory is epistemological in that it deals not so much with literary criticism (although the implications for such are tremendous) as with how one comes to know. In the following analysis of Fish's theory I will focus primarily on his later reader-response theory."
    more :
    "This aspect of Fish's theory is one of the most radical and controversial. He posits that meaning inheres not in the text but in the reader, or rather the reading community. "In the procedures I would urge," he writes, "the reader's activities are at the center of attention, where they are regarded not as leading to meaning but as having meaning."Footnote33 He can hold this because he believes that there is no stable basis for meaning. There is no correct interpretation that will always hold true. Meaning does not exist "out there" somewhere. It exists, rather, within the reader."
    and more more :
    "Fish's next move in his anti-formalist agenda is to deny the text as object, which was so important to Wimsatt and Beardsley and the New Critics. "The objectivity of the text is an illusion and, moreover, a dangerous illusion, because it is so physically convincing."Footnote36 What exactly Fish means by this statement is somewhat unclear. He does not, as it may appear, deny the ontological reality or the existence of the palpable object, although one could argue that that is exactly what this sentence by itself means because he apparently pairs the word "objective" with "physical."Footnote37 It is the context that illuminates what he is driving at. But he does deny the text's independence as a repository of meaning.Footnote38 The text does not contain meaning: despite being written upon, it is a tabula rasa, a blank slate onto which the reader, in reading, actually writes the text."
    and and more more more :
    "Fish takes the idea of the hermeneutical circle seriously. The reader is always reading her preunderstanding back into the text with no possibility of achieving an "objective" or author-centered interpretation. Fish claims that an interpretive theory is itself circular, that the interpreter will always find what he is looking for in the text, that formal patterns "are themselves constituted by an interpretive act."Footnote39 He claims at one point that:

    Theories always work and they will always produce exactly the results they predict, results that will be immediately compelling to those for whom the theory's assumptions and enabling principles are self-evident. Indeed, the trick would be to find a theory that didn't work.Footnote40

    Because the assumptions one begins with will determine the outcome of the study, for Fish, "success is inevitable."Footnote41 The methods with which one approaches the text have already determined the outcome, one's presuppositions actuate the product.Footnote42

    For Fish a text is only a RorschachFootnote43 blot onto which the reader projects her self-understanding or, as we shall see, her culturally determined assumptions. The text contains nothing in itself, rather the content is supplied by the reader. It is the reader that determines the shape of text, its form, and its content. This is how Fish can claim that reader's write texts. Worthen's comment is apt. He says, "as far as Fish is concerned, reading can only repeat reality, in that it necessarily consists of nothing but replications of independently existing collective interpretive strategies."Footnote44 This is exactly what reading does and this is one of the difficulties of his theory. It fails to account for the text being able to expand the readers' understanding or Weltanshung by introducing her to a different way of perceiving. For Fish the text can only function as a mirror that provides a reflection of its reader. "
    at last, the whole damn thing :
    Authorial Intent

    It is in this same manner that Fish dismisses the idea of authorial intent as the guiding principle in interpretation. In analyzing one of his previous critical works he declares,

    I did what critics always do: I "saw" what my interpretive principles permitted or directed me to see, and then I turned around and attributed what I had 'seen' to a text and an intention. . . . What I am suggesting is that formal units are always a function of the interpretive model one brings to bear; they are not "in" the text, and I would make the same argument for intentions.Footnote45

    To claim that the author intended to say or do such and such is really a declaration regarding the interpreter, in Fish's theory. Thus different interpreters will see different intentions because they are a creation of the reader and not the author. As with New Critical theory, the author fails to live past the creation of the text, indeed, for Fish the author as well is a creation of the reader.Footnote46

    Fish can make this move because of his epistemic beliefs that nothing we see, perceive, or think is uninterpreted. He considers the attempt to access the author's intention as naive; for how would one ever access an intention as it does not exist in any objective or uninterpreted realm that can be mediated to our consciousness without itself being interpreted? We could have access to documents regarding the author's true intention, "but the documents . . . that would give us that intention are no more available to a literal reading (are no more uninterpreted) than the literal reading it would yield." Thus when John writes, "These things have been written that you might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God; and that believing you may have eternal life in his name," we are no closer to his intentions than were he to have said and written nothing.Footnote47

    Fish is following after the New Critical school, which as we have seen, disregarded authorial intent as well as historical interpretation. For Fish it is not important to access the original context in order to access meaning. He says, "to consult dictionaries, grammars, and histories is to assume that meanings can be specified independently of the activity of reading."Footnote48 But as we have seen it is the activity of reading which takes center stage in the making of meaning. Fish posits this because he believes that we as interpreters are cut off from past worlds or cultures. In other words, he believes that we are without commonality with past cultures and that, therefore, a complete disjuncture exists. The interpreter belongs to a different world from the author.
    Interpretive Communities

    What lies behind Fish's thinking at this point is a strong view of the social construction of reality. Fish firmly believes that knowledge is not objective but always socially conditioned. All that one thinks and "knows" is an interpretation that is only made possible by the social context in which one lives. For Fish the very thoughts one thinks are made possible by presuppositions of the community in which one lives and furthermore the socially conditioned individual, which all individuals are, cannot think beyond the limits made possible by the culture. This culture is referred to by Fish as an "interpretive community" and the strategies of an interpreter are

    community property, and insofar as they at once enable and limit the operations of his consciousness, he is too [community property]. . . . Interpretive communities are made up of those who share interpretive strategies not for reading but for writing texts, for constituting their properties.Footnote49

    Fish believes that interpretive communities, like languages, are purely conventional, that is, arbitrarily agreed upon constructions. The way a community lives is in no way a reflection of some higher reality, it is rather a construction, or edifice that has been erected by consensus. This holds true for the interpretive strategies a culture or an institution employs as well as their notions of right and wrong. A culture's morality is no more founded in any external reality than its language.Footnote50 Nor is it possible to specify how language correlates with the external world.Footnote51 Language and its usage are arbitrary decisions made by convention as is the fact that we call north "North" instead of something else.

    In response to a criticism launched by M. H. Abrams, Fish explains some of his understanding of the conventional nature of language.

    If what follows is communication or understanding, it will not be because he and I share a language, in the sense of knowing the meanings of individual words and the rules for combining them, but because a way of thinking, a form of life, shares us, and implicates us in a world of already-in-place objects, purposes, goals, procedures, values, and so on; and it is to the features of that world that any words we utter will be heard as necessarily referring [italics mine].Footnote52

    Similarly, what we call literature is not such because of some abiding principle of truth or art that exists in an atemporal state, but it is such because the culture values it for interests of its own, that is because it reflects the culture's values and beliefs in some way.

    Thus the act of recognizing literature is not constrained by something in the text, nor does it issue from an independent and arbitrary will; rather, it proceeds from a collective decision as to what will count as literature, a decision that will be in force only so long as a community of readers or believers continues to abide by it.Footnote53

    In this view literature is simply the expression of an ideology. Because of his views on literature, literature tends to lose its "special status" as literature and becomes simply a reflection of communal values which is as subject to change as are cultures. That is not to say that the individual or culture consciously chooses its values, which would imply some form of objectivity or the ability to stand apart from one's values. To Fish it is not possible to abstract one's self from one's values. Fish is simply a product of his environment without the ability to choose his beliefs and values. They are instead informed or determined by the culture which is historically conditioned and no more able to choose objectively than the individual.

    Using Fish as an example of post-structuralist critical theory, I will in the remaining chapters analyze his thought as it relates to post-modernism. What follows is an examination of post-modernism from the perspective of the discipline of philosophy, or an history of ideas approach. It is not intended to be a comprehensive history of Western philosophy but a brief examination of some of the salient features which I believe have contributed to the rise of what is now being called post-modernism. I will end the chapter with an emphasis on the "linguistic turn", as Rorty has called it, in philosophy of the twentieth century by examining some of the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein as his thinking bears some similarities to that of Stanley Fish and lays some of the groundwork for the current state of things. Wittgenstein is important as his thinking is often characterized as thoroughly conventionalist and misappropriated as such.

    In the following chapters I would also like to take a critical look at some of Fish's theory and examine some of the consequences of his thinking. Fish claims that because his thinking is theoretical it is without consequences (he consistently tells his critics "not to worry"). He is at least disingenuous if not patently dishonest in this assertion as his theories have grave consequence especially for those who would appeal to some transcendent standard.

    In taking a critical stance toward Fish's literary theory I am well aware of Fish's response to those who disagree with his theories or, as he puts it, "feel threatened" by his ideas. Those who hold to the idea of essences, or to the reality and accessibility of transcendent truths, he labels as foundationalists, members of the "intellectual right."Footnote54 And he further accuses them of holding to a naive epistemology which views the mind as merely reflecting the world as it really is (an sich). Footnote55 Moreover they are characterized as without understanding how fundamental language is to one's world view and the cultural assumptions that go with it. I must plead guilty to being a foundationalist with objections to Fish's theory. Fish claims that his theory, however, is internally coherent, while I will argue just the opposite, that his theory does not cohere based on his own assumptions. Fish's response to these criticisms would be to deny me as his critic access to his theory in the first place because I do not share his assumptions and, to him, only those who are within a community can understand its thought. That claim is, however, as we shall see, one of the bases of my criticism. Let us turn briefly to the history of philosophy."

    and further i realize the guilt of my mania for paper :


    "The lines of eucalyptus stretch as far as the eye can see, towering over us. The trunks are straight with hardly any branches. Inside the plantations there’s an eerie silence. No birds, no animals, few signs of life. Nothing grows between the rows of trees except a few blades of grass. We drive on to a vast clearcut where machines are removing the trees mechanically and apparently effortlessly. The trees are all the same age, the same species and at such a risk of pest and disease attacks that they have to be regularly sprayed with a cocktail of chemicals.

    The plantations belong to Veracel, a massive new pulp mill in the Brazilian state of Bahia, built as a joint venture between the Swedish-Finnish pulp giant Stora Enso and Brazil’s Aracruz. The pulp mill started up in 2005.

    The European Investment Bank, which lent a total of US$110 million to the Veracel project, states that the pulp mill “is expected to create significant economic benefits for the region, including employment”. In fact, Veracel’s pulp mill will employ only 400 people. Built at a cost of US$1.25 billion, jobs at Veracel’s pulp mill come at US$3.15 million invested per job. At the same time, many thousands of livelihoods were lost when farm lands were taken over for Veracel’s plantations. We visit a village, or what’s left of it. Villagers tell us that many people have moved away since the eucalyptus arrived 18 months ago. In one commune almost everyone has moved away. “There are no jobs here now and no money from the eucalyptus,” one of the villagers tells us. Business at the local shop is down by 80 per cent.

    The villagers show us their cemetery, or what’s left of it. Veracel has planted eucalyptus right up to the cemetery, and even taken some of the cemetery land. The cemetery is completely walled in by eucalyptus. To find it, we have to drive between the rows of eucalyptus.

    Villagers tell us about the river, or what’s left of it. The river near the village is drying up. It is polluted by chemicals from the plantations. Plantation workers clean their tractors in the river which further pollutes the water. Fish and cattle have died as a result. In common with all the pulp mills we’ve ever visited, the Veracel pulp mill stinks. José Marinho Damaceno is a small cattle farmer who lives on the Jequitinhonha River, just opposite Veracel’s effluent discharge. He complains of headaches and irritated eyes. He describes the smell as rotten cabbage. When the smell is too bad, he has to leave his farm. Damaceno wants to leave Veracel for good, but first he has to sell his land."

    and to finnish :

    mieluummin venäjä tai edes ranska por favor
    itseään ei pidä teititellä vaan meititellä
    kivijalat täynnä kuiskivia haamuja
    ja mykkiä aamuja olen ollut jo joskus
    mutten ole enää en lintu enkä kala
    vaan kivien kuntaa punaista graniittia
    joka muistaa ja tietää kaiken
    tai sitten puu joka on totuus itse
    an sich yhtä varjonsa kanssa
    ja ymmärtää kaiken
    niin kuin sen
    kunnan etymologia on hieman sekava,
    'esôbrakôn tôn': their underpants; Du. kont: arse; graniitti on ital. 'grano' ja edelleen latinan 'granum', jyvä(nen); punainenhan tarkoitti häpykarvaa, karvaa ja karvalla on värin merkitys ;-); siis pelkkä jyvä tai hius; linnut ja kalat on selitetty triljoona kertaa, samaten itse -sana, jota tässä vuovataan; Venäjä on minulle Russia, rusien, soutajien maa, olivat soutajat sitten viikinkejä tai ketä hyvänsä; haamu on aamu - taas täällä kummittelee tämä 'me', ransk. nous ja keisareitten ja tsaarien persoonapro no mini -sen kannaksi on esitetty jopa ruotsin 'hundraa', sata, kantagermaanien *-kundaa, jonka merkitys yhdyssanoissa on '-sukuinen', tarjolla ovat myös merkitykset 'suku, sotajoukko, heimo' jne. jne.]
    istä, en selitä; hak! hak! in persian and arabic, an exclamation meaning 'truth';

    Jätä kommentti = Runodialogi


    Footnote :
    USE OF OP. CIT.: Reference to a work which has already been cited in full form but not in the reference immediately preceding should include the author,s last name (but not his/her first name or initials unless two authors by the same last name have already been mentioned in the paper), and the abbreviation op.cit. from the Latin opere citato ("in the work cited"). In most entries' op. cit. is followed by the page designation.
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